PDF | Ficus carica var. smyrica is the rare fruit trees that depend on pollination wasp Blastophbaga psenes for fertilization and forming fruits. In a way, Estahban’s. PDF | On Jan 1, , F. Kjellberg and others published Longevity of a fig wasp ( Blastophaga psenes). Dynamics of Blastophaga psenes Populations, Availability of Caprifigs, and Fig Endosepsis Caused by Fusarium moniliforme. T. J. Michailides and D. P. Morgan .
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Universal Chalcidoidea Database
These wasps’ native range is in the Palaearctic, including Southern Europe near the Mediterranean Basin. If the wasp does not detect a signal, it will not enter the fig. Studies show that wasps on upper surfaces of the leaves were infected with this fungus in higher levels than other wasps. Due to the fact that wasps do not have very long ovipositors, they can only parasitize ovaries of these female flowers with short styles which are only found on male trees.
WikiProject Biology may be able to help recruit an expert. Blastophaga grossorum BlastophahaBlastophaga vaidi Joseph, Cynips psenes Linnaeus, In the phylogenetic tree, the genus of Blastophaga and Wiebesia are very similar.
The wasps assess the figs before entrance. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Due to this rush, pollination will become less effective as more pollen falls off of the wasp bodies. This rush creates a large number of wasps all competing to enter an adjacent blasttophaga. Pentane extracts from figs which are in their receptive-phase will attract B.
Blastophaga – Wikipedia
Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata. The actual attractive substances come from the ostiole. Also, the incidences of this fungus are higher when there is a high population of wasps with limited figs.
The mother produces this hyperplastic tissue when she lays the eggs in the syconium. For instance, the fig could be a non-pollinator and therefore not release any chemical substance.
Male trees contain female flowers with short styles. One of the main predators of these wasps is ants. Once wasps emerge from the syconium, they have to figure out how to get to the fig in which they want to deposit their eggs.
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Linnaeus. Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 20 April This olfactory stimulus is specific for the wasps’ host fig in this case, F. After fertilization, females emerge from a syconium with nematodes still in hemocoel along with pollen flakes along her body.
All female flowers on male tree with ovaries that are not parasitized blastohaga wasp eggs will produce seeds and will help pollination and reproduction of that flower. This concept is called associative learning of odor because the ants are indirectly finding these wasps by associating the smell of the fig with the wasps.
This leads to the trend that female trees are lethal since wasps are stuck in that syconium. Males emerge first and start seeking females to mate with. Mating occurs within the syconium and laying eggs occurs in a syconium different than the one where mating occurred.
Wasps who were higher up in the tree or further out on a branch also showed more fungus on their wings and bodies. Because of this lack of depositing eggs in these female flowers, all female flowers on female trees produce seeds and none produce larva.
These wasps lay fertilized eggs in the syconium of a F.
Blastophaga psenes – Identical Protein Groups Result
They do this by holding up their heads and antennae next to the opening of the syconium the ostiole. The larvae become adults around the same time male fig flowers are ready to produce pollen.
Larvae finish development with nematode still inside the blastopnaga. The fungus shows to be more evident in spring caprifigs that are pollinated with 5 to 10 winter caprifigs than when blastophqga caprifigs are pollinated with only one winter caprifig.