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Texts such as those discussed in this chapter were important literary responses to nationalism, modernization and Peronist populism. The old gaucho in the corner throws Dahlmann a knife so as not to enter the duel unarmed.

Writers molded their Argentine imaginary to suit them—an imaginary just as selective and exclusive as previous iterations. The text does not mention any active rebuttal to the invasion, yet a secondary perspective shows that it took an invasion either real or imaginary for them to be reintroduced into the public sphere. The authors portray the narrator and those with him as blind, unthinking followers. He understood that the gaucho had been rewritten previously and existed more as a fluid literary creature than something preserved in a historical mold.

Cabecita Negra (English, Spanish, Paperback)

People did not choose Cabbecita, they were blindly led into it. As Bioy pointed out: One of the few voices to be heard clearly during this time was that of the nationalists whose rhetoric had been used to enflame the revolution in the first place.

Having put down the guitar and taking up the knife, he changes from one seeking justice to one running from justice.

No matter which gaucho was present, he becomes a symbol of what Rosas-style nationalism can offer to twentieth century Argentina. Political turmoil marked the infamous decade with seven presidents in just ten years, adding to the unreliable political environment rozeenmacher overall feeling of distrust.

For nationalists, returning to Rosas seemed a positive step in preserving national autochthony; however for the liberal elite Peronism meant a return to barbarism and a deconstruction of economic and social progress.


These four works, among many others, sought to influence national politics indirectly by rewriting history. They unthinkingly and apathetically cede the house to the invaders, room by room, until the siblings are forced to leave and the story ends as the door closes and leaves them out in the street.

While in this post, he made powerful allies with socialist movements and union leaders. These authors perceived Peronist populism as existing in direct conflict with their individualism as well as the ability to choose that they felt was central to being Argentine. It makes dying a choice; it makes it seem as though the inevitable could be avoided but that the gaucho faces it head on and asks for death. Though Borges lauded the gaucho for his character, he was less enthusiastic about praising the compadrito.

Lanari has little to do with the two people standing in his home it is the reversal of authority roles. The gaucho by the wall acts as an artifact of the old rural tradition.

He is also shocked by the dynamic of servant and master that has switched in that moment. Juan Manuel de Rosas: Borges hints to the reader that there are simultaneous narratives occurring that one should be aware of.

While Dahlmann may have miraculously traveled into the past, Borges inscribes pieces of the present as reminders of contemporary social inequalities. These songs demonstrate reverence for the cultural icon and his continued national influence at the popular level Carretero Borges uses the gaucho in multiple texts to juxtapose and complicate justice and law along with civilization and barbarism.

He emphasized the central role gauchos played in maintaining cabecta discourse of national identity from a nationalist perspective. La hospitalidad fue su fiesta. This border area is where conflict occurs between liberal modernization and rural conservatism. Borges understood the gaucho as an intrinsic connection between the physical space of the Rio de la Plata and the Pampa and the autochthonous creation of literature.


On the other hand, the new working class consisted of rural Argentine migrants arriving in the cities.

Germán Rozenmacher

The liberal elite unconsciously go about their daily routine without societal participation leaving behind a participatory void to be filled by the working class. A question then arises: While Borges saw that the gaucho became grman literary representation of nationalism through revisionists hands, he perceived that the gaucho could be rewritten and recreated with a contemporary figure like the compadrito and thus constructed a parodic representation of the nationalist icon in the compadrito Britton Edelmiro Farrell was dictator between and This comparison insinuates that their existence is one without herman participation in social and political discourse.

Many of these jobs were physically difficult and workers may have ended the day covered in sweat and grime. Once again rozenmachsr allegory of the river, las orillas and cueto detrital material found therein become important rhetorical devices to both define and describe the gaucho and national sociopolitical rhetoric.

It may also have been important in bringing the proletariat together in social environments and in disseminating national ideologies of authenticity, autochthony and social justice from both Liberals and Peronists.

He was a displaced product of urbanization and capitalism.

Germán Rozenmacher ( of La Argentina en pedazos)

These two short stories provide a response to both literary and social traditions. Click here to sign up. This was the fate that the oligarchy feared.