KRONOS is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of titanium dioxide and has been operating as an international company for more than 90 years. The group. KRONOS – Best in class for industrial coatings. KRONOS safety data sheet. Tap for sound. Learn more about KRONOS on KRONOS® is a rutile pigment that can be used universally and provides the highest weather resistance performance for the most demanding coatings. I.

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Published online Oct As for every particle sizing method, besides the physical principles applied, the decision as to how to measure the particle size and its distribution is somewhat arbitrary and generally restricted by practicality aspects.

A combination of both values has proven adequate for grey-value filtering. Uncounted particles labelled krojos a 3 are filtered out as non-primary particles due to their shape.

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The high reproducibility of the measurement, which leads to a standard error below 2 nm for all evaluated measurements, justifies use of the non-parametric rank sum test of Siegel and Tukey [ 21 ] to test whether the measured distribution can be attributed to the same population.

An urgent demand for reliable methods for the characterization of particulate materials is triggered by the prospect of forthcoming national and international regulations concerning the classification of nanomaterials [ 3 — 6 ]. The grey values of the particles are important for the subsequent filtering of the results obtained. Visualisation of the systematic challenges in the detection of sectioned particles; a principal possibilities for sectioning a particle; the viewing direction is indicated by the black arrow; lines 1 to 4 indicate section planes through the particle shown; b a representative electron micrograph of a polished section; the numbers given correspond to the sections given exemplarily in part a ; the particles with a coloured envelope are the ones finally detected after grey-value and morphologic filtering.

The standard error of the method is shown to be below 2 nm for all measured quantities, the relative coefficient of variation being below 1. The reproducibility of the method is based on the use of a representative, macroscopic amount of sample material, a high degree of automation, the elimination of detection errors due to overlapping particles and a transparent filtering procedure for detected particles.


The most common industrial processing routes are the sulfate process and the chloride process.

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Unifying the grey values as the basis for final pigment detection Fig. The resulting binary image with the separated particles is used as a mask for the unified image.

But it can also be directed above the particle plane 1 and 2 in Fig. The former is a kroonos with a rutile structure for use in coatings and paints, while the latter is a food-grade pigment with an anatase structure. As the first selective decision, the present study uses polished sections in which overlapping particles are ruled out.

Import Data and Price of rutile 92 2 under HS Code | Zauba

The effect of lacking stereologic correction, if significant, leads to a result which is slightly smaller than the “real” particle size. In the sulfate process, for example, ilmenite ore krnos dissolved in sulfuric acid, iron and titanium are separated by controlled precipitation, and colouring transition metals are removed in a bleaching process prior to calcination.

Reliable sizing methods that overcome these obstacles, and are practical for industrial use, are still kronso. Measurement, pigment detection and size analysis A working distance of 7 mm and an acceleration voltage of 5 kV with an Everhart—Thornley detector are chosen as the standard imaging conditions for SEM imaging. However, the method has several limitations, which also need to be addressed and discussed here. Visit Website Are you a distributor who is interested in being kronoe here?

As for the grey values, combined filtering of two shape characteristics has proven advantages, namely the so-called convexity and the shape factor:. Experimental The experimental procedures described below are in full agreement with the practical guide for particle size characterization published by NIST [ 22 ].

The typical obstacles in the characterization of industrial materials, such as kronox particle shapes [ 11 ], a broad size distribution [ 12 ] and strong aggregation and agglomeration effects [ 13 — 14 ], have not been addressed successfully.


In the ideal case, the size distribution of the final products is optimised for the optical pigment properties, which are described by using Mie’s theory. A macroscopic amount is taken for the mixing and embedding procedure.

Received Apr 30; Accepted Aug This allows maximum transparency of the procedure and krohos comparability and reproducibility of the results, e. With applications ranging from electronics to wall paints to paper, this organization has you covered. Both phases have a number of advantages and disadvantages, which lead to their typical applications. It also has very good dispersibility that enables production of high-gloss coatings with little gloss haze.


Particles sectioned above the centre of mass, labelled with a 2, are only partially filtered out. The presence of arbitrary shapes in industrially produced titanium dioxide makes stereologic correction impractical, krono for the evaluation of projections and for the evaluation of sections. Results and Discussion In order to establish the proposed method, especially for the sizing of pigment-grade titanium dioxide, the reproducibility krronos the method was primarily tested.

Mie’s theory states that the optimum particle size for refracting light is just about half the wavelength it is meant to interact with.

The comparability is sufficient, as long as the penetration depth of the electrons, which is determined by the acceleration voltage, remains constant. The first preparation run included four samples, labelled Ra01 through Ra04 for the rutile pigment and Aa01 trough Aa04 for the anatase pigment. The data prove that the method presented for primary particle sizing of pigmentary titanium dioxide is highly kornos and reproducible.

Based on the assumption of a common, known kronow shape, stereologic corrections may be used to estimate the “real” size distribution, either from the measured projection sizes or from the measured section sizes [ 1519 — 20 ].